Benefits Of Using Google Docs

Google Docs is a data storage online-based service that is offered by Google for free. It allows you to collaborate with your colleagues while storing and editing data in real time. It has a word processing application that will let you share memos, articles or any documents with your team. It includes a spreadsheet application that enables you to share relevant data such as company reports, budget proposals and financial statements with your associates. Sharing files is made easier because these documents can be accessed by different people simultaneously.

Google Docs
Google Docs

Apart from that, Google Docs also allows you to store any type of files whether an audio file, a picture, or a word document.

Personally, I’ve been using Google Docs for years now and I couldn’t remember a downtime, at least not for me. It has been very helpful to me and with my business as well. Collaboration with my team with real-time updates made me manage things accordingly and smoothly.

Whenever I need to share a file to my colleagues who are from other parts of the globe, I need not tire myself of endlessly sending updating documents to them. I simply make one document and upload it in Google Docs and share it to my team. I can even limit their access to my documents. I can set the “can edit” subscription if I want them to do necessary edits in the documents I am sharing, or I can change that to “can view” if I don’t want them to do anything in my files. Here’s a video on how to maximize Google Docs for your business.

As long as you have the internet connection, you can access your Google Docs files anywhere, any time.You don’t have to download any software to have access to Google Docs. As long as you have a Gmail account and a reliable internet connection, then accessing your files wherever you are in the globe is not a problem because of the high technology cloud system that saves the information.

Spell Checker? Check!

Just like in any versions of documents, Google Docs detects misspelled words that you put in your worksheet. In the tools menu, you will see the spell-checker icon which allows you to check the spelling of your words.

Document Auto Linking… Wooohoo!

Google Docs has a feature that will detect whenever you will add a link to your spreadsheet. It automatically converts a plain text into a link. This saves our time from copying the URL and pasting it in the browser. With just one click, you will then be redirected to the landing page of that specific link.

Document Language Translation? Not a problem with Google Docs! Google Docs allows you to use the language that you prefer. It recognizes 53 languages which allows you to translate your documents in any dialect that you want.

See how Google Docs is very useful to every business? With all these handful advantages, Google Docs have made wonders to my business. It didn’t even hurt my budget. It doesn’t cost me nothing because it’s totally FREE.

If you are a professional team spread across the globe and working together on a project, Google Docs is your best tool for a more collaborative work.

Any business will likely succeed if you have system in place. Keeping yourself abreast with the recent technological advances is a big advantage for your business to succeed. Linda Credit [] keeps an eye on new tool discoveries which are useful in making her online business transactions fast and easy.

How To Choose Cloud Technology For Your Business

Working with a cloud computing company can be beneficial in numerous ways. According to several surveys at the international level, it has been found that companies of all sizes and shapes are adapting such services to improve their working efficiency, enhance their profit margin and minimize the business operational cost. However, most of the people do not have an exact idea about cloud computing.

Read on to understand what is cloud computing and what are the elements you need to take into consideration when selecting a computing vendor for your business.

What is cloud computing?

In order to understand the concept of cloud computing, it is vital to understand where the term “cloud computing” originated from. It is most likely originated from the use of cloud like shape to demonstrate the network computing environment, which include hardware, storage, services, networks and services involved.

Cloud computing
Cloud computing

“Cloud computing” by Sam Johnston – Created by Sam Johnston using OmniGroup’s OmniGraffle and Inkscape (includes Computer.svg by Sasa Stefanovic)This vector image was created with Inkscape.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons –
You can find several definitions over the internet in the context of cloud computing. It is simply a delivery of software services and computing infrastructure through the internet. People can access shared resources, software applications and system stored on any remote server through the internet browser.

The cloud computing services are usually offered by Third Party companies. Most of the IT companies prefer to hire such firms to reduce their operational cost, improve their working efficiency, maximize their profit margin, and to have a great control over their business.

It is easy to find numerous companies that provide cloud computing solutions for small, mid-sized and large IT firms. However, not all of them offer genuine and reliable services. When going to hire a company, it is important to find a service provider that can meet all your needs. Here are the few elements which you need to take into account when selecting one for your business.

Technical support

When going to hire a service provider the first and foremost thing which you need to check is the IT support services. Check the support services offered by different cloud computing service providers and the ways through which they are available for your help or support such as phone, email, fax, online chat and so on. Besides this, you need to ensure that their support hours meet with your business operation hours. You also need to ensure that their support services are available in weekends, holidays and beyond the office hours during the emergency.

Service Agreements

The professional vendors usually sign business agreements which include the details of their services and commitments such as response time, service hours and the time limit that servers are online. You need to check every term and condition before going to sign any agreement. If possible, request them to make service agreement as per your business need and requirements.

Standard API

It is vital to ensure that the cloud computing vendor you are going to hire is utilizing a standardize application programming interface (API). API is a mechanism which handles the data transmission of a specific application into the cloud. When using a standardize API, you can get a peace of mind that the server will be compatible with your applications.


It is important to know how the cloud vendor will protect your data and important documents. You need to find out the answer of some common security questions like what forms of authentication are used by the vendor, who can access your data? And so on. This will surely help you in choosing the right computing vendor for your firm.

Billing and Monitoring

Not all cloud computing vendors offer the same level of services at the same charges. Their charges may vary depending on the services and facilities they provide to their users. You need to check and compare the facilities and services of different vendors. This will help you in choosing the right company within your budget.

By keeping these elements in mind before hiring any company, will definitely help in choosing the right cloud computing vendor for your business.
By Apurwa Anand

Is The Landline Dead?

Skype vs. Viber
Skype vs. Viber
The death of the landline signifies a deep-rooted cultural modification that impacts both our public as well as personal lives. Because of the fast-paced life and the many technological innovations we all encounter; the demise of the ‘good old’ landline has been overlooked. Sadly, it’s death has unhooked all of us from our personal and daily connections, in the office, where email messaging has kept us away from co-workers who sit simply some 2-3 feet away from us, and the same holds true at home. Way back, the landline functioned as a vital link that connected almost everyone even outside the home.

A majority of people agree that the sudden growth of mobile devices over the last two decades began the decline in the use of the conventional landlines. Because mobile phone services have grown so quickly, and call rates becoming cheaper, many individuals find it hard to justify the added expense of having to keep both a landline and a mobile phone.

Although the landline was not as ‘big’ as it once were, and commercial clients are now replacing the landline with VoIP services, voice traffic in fact appears to be shifting for customary landline providers, as opposed to reports that it has actually been totally obliterated from the telecommunication’s sphere.

VoIP Vs Landline
VoIP Vs Landline
The truth is the landline is still alive and kicking, even popular business mobile solutions agree to this fact. The younger segment of the market may have been found getting rid of the traditional home phones as they turn to VoIP services as a cost-cutting measure.

VoIP services draw more attention for being inexpensive and for allowing easy access to everyone. Any user may gain access to his account wherever he may be in the world. Business owners who frequently travel choose VoIP over landline systems because they can still use their number over a VoIP connection even when they go outside of their geographical boundaries or abroad. Despite the fact that the customary definition of a landline is now changing, customers still seem to appreciate its many features and security attributes.

For instance, in many rural areas of a particular country, high speed internet and mobile phone coverage are not available, and so landlines are still a practical option and a necessity. Even in urban areas, business mobile solutions are pointing at architecture and poor mobile phone coverage spots to be the main culprits why customers – both residential and commercial keep their landlines. One great benefit that attaches to a landline is the fact that when you dial a police hotline or emergency number like 911, your exact location or physical address can be easily determined and distress calls are immediately traced.

As business mobile solutions advance, the manner in which people communicate from across the globe is likewise changing. Nowadays, people see the power of both worlds and so, they opt to embrace both technology – mobile phone service and landline service. This is a merger and convergence that homes and businesses will both definitely benefit from.

Having the best of both worlds assures safety and security that a landline provides, and now with the newest technological advancements your landline can be combined with the mobility, flexibility, as well as cost-effective feature of a mobile phone. You can now have one telephone number that rings your landline as well as your mobile phone whenever and wherever you may be in the world.

Many business solutions mobile phones are especially made to cater to this win-win alternative, now you can have a mobile app that will allow you to make international calls through your mobile phone which is likewise used in conjunction with your landline phone. While there are some carriers who are promoting a home phone tool that utilizes the exact same landline number as a subscriber’s mobile device.

Notwithstanding the fact that the conventional landline use is dwindling, VoIP has in fact revived landline use and made it more attractive to many users. It can be safely concluded that landline is not dead, not now, and not in the near future! VoIP tools and apps may have made landline use to decline overall, but it never totally replaced the landline service use as a whole.

Due to the fast rising advancement and innovations in technology, it is difficult to determine exactly what the telecommunications future will look like years from now. Nevertheless, it is clear that it will never look the same way it looked 10 or 30 years ago. The best move would be to continue embracing both the landline and mobile technologies altogether to the end that all consumers, residential or commercial will have all the security, flexibility, and savings that they are all looking for. That’s the beauty of technology reinvented!

How to Turn Office 365 Into a Phone System

 How to Turn Office 365 Into a Phone System

How to Turn Office 365 Into a Phone System

Microsoft doesn’t offer telephony… EVERYONE knows THAT! So, how is it possible to turn one of the world’s most ubiquitous software packages into a complete phone system for your business? With Lync, that’s how. Surely, by now you have heard of Microsoft Lync… the moniker that was bestowed upon Microsoft’s Office Communications Server (OCS) back in 2010.

Lync Online, which is a component of many Office 365 licenses, is a powerful communications platform, offering presence, instant messaging, voice over IP (VoIP) calling, desktop sharing, and audio and video conferencing… all from a single interface. Lync makes it possible to handle just about all of your communications through a single desktop client, with one exception… voice… dialtone. Old school telephony.

Recognizing this limitation as a significant opportunity in the converging IT and telecom industries, which is a completely separate topic that warrants additional attention… perhaps in an encore article, a handful of providers have developed a way to voice enable Office 365 (or O365 since just about everything in telecom becomes reduced to an acronym). The mechanism for supercharging the software suite is Microsoft Lync.

As previously mentioned, Lync is already a component of O365. What is missing, though, is voice enablement. By replacing the Lync Online component with a voice-enabled Lync package, O365 becomes a comprehensive communications solution. So the user is able to leverage their purchase of O365 and obtain a phone system that is fully integrated into everything else they use on their desktop, including Exchange for email and calendaring, and even Microsoft SharePoint for shared document management. There are even call center components that can be incorporated for high volume telephone operations. The value to the customer is the ability to replace a legacy phone system that they have outgrown or is reaching its end of life with a completely hosted telephone system.

This unified communications platform behaves just like the telephone systems that today’s businesses have come to rely upon for day-to-day operations, including receptionist switchboard features, call routing to “hunt groups” and full IVR capabilities. Voice-enabled Lync can be configured to mirror the functionality of a legacy phone system, even to the point of feeding an office-wide intercom system to announce calls on hold.

If it’s time for you, or your customers, to re-evaluate the value of a legacy phone system, Microsoft Lync may be the answer. If you have purchased Office 365, you are already halfway there!

Learn more about how Office 365 can be used as a phone system. Call or email me for a personalized consult to determine if this is a viable option for you and your business. I can be reach most anytime on 302.514.PLUM or

Face Off: Virtual Desktop or Remote Desktop?

One of the most critical decisions that companies have to take is whether to opt for a virtual desktop or a remote desktop, or a combination of both. For this, a comparative study needs to be conducted to compare and contrast which option would suit your business needs and functions.

Remote Desktop Connection
Remote Desktop Connection

While both the options have their own advantages and disadvantages, mentioned below is a gist of virtual and remote desktops that will aid you in making the correct decision:

Remote Desktop

Initially known as terminal services, the remote desktop is a Microsoft service that allows users to have a virtual session by accessing files and applications through a server. The experience of using remote services is more or less like using a local desktop; the only difference is that the session is processed on a server not the desktop.

Remote desktops are relatively simpler as little infrastructure requirements are needed to be met; thereby reducing implementation costs. Moreover, it helps in enhancing remote worker’s efficiency because it is most suitable for remote workers, contractors and corporate workers working from a remote location.

However, the biggest drawback of a remote desktop is that it has compatibility issues. Since it has a terminal environment, many applications fail to work. Nonetheless, improvements have been made over the years and many applications have started working, but still some applications do not work till date.

Virtual Desktop

Also known as VDI, the virtual desktops are basically interfaces that run on a virtual environment and not on a local desktop. However, the virtual desktop environment and infrastructure tends to be more convoluted than the remote desktop. The administrators are responsible for managing numerous virtual desktops

Some of the important benefits of a virtual desktop are: the administrators find it easy to adapt or allocate the RAM capacity, disk space and various other peripherals; the data on the virtual desktop can be backed up and easily restored using snapshots; virtual desktops are easily deploy able as it has the capability to replicate and develop templates in a span of a few minutes.

Although VDIs are a costly option, they have the capability to provide numerous benefits that outweigh this drawback.

It is important to understand that both desktops are meant to be operated in a different environment; therefore, your needs and requirements must be matched to the features of these desktop services before deciding which one to go for.

If you are in need of technical assistance and support, IT Solutions Ca has a variety of services to offer you. From managed IT services in Pickering to network cabling in Toronto and data recovery in Mississauga, they have an array of IT assortments to be offered across multiple cities of Canada. Don’t forget to visit their website for complete information.

Furthermore about it support services kindly visit our website: Jack Warn

International Calling Cards

Are you missing somebody at home? Or is your sweetheart out of the country? The best way to make international long-distance calls is by using an international calling card. Such telephone cards were introduced to make long distance calls simple and effortless. But they have slowly developed into the cheapest way of making telephone calls from one country to another, owing to the increase in the number of private telecom companies and their price wars.

Before the advent of calling cards, it required a lot of time, money and preparation to make an international call, and involved contemplation on how much should be spent, how to convey maximum information in the shortest time, and how many minutes that would take.

Today’s international calling cards are activated either by entering a pin number into a toll free number, or by placing a call from a number that is pre-registered. A secret pin number can be used to activate some cards. Others use a combination of any of these methods. You can pay for these cards online, or by cash or credit cards. Many cards are prepaid and will automatically hang up once you have used the allocated amount of time. But there are some calling cards that allow you to extend the time of call by paying extra, even after the allocated amount is used up.

There are many calling card operators on the web as well as in your neighborhood. You need to be judicious while buying a card, and choose your operator prudently. You have to check the reliability, rates and time slabs offered by each operator and for different countries. Customer service standards of the operator have to be taken into consideration; also, avoid any problematic pin codes or disrupted voice lines.

India Calling Cards.

How To Use Google Translate

It is very easy to use Google translate. You will just need to follow these steps to use this online software. The first step is finding the software tool. There are many ways to find the software tool. The first way is to go to and type in the term “Google translate” inside the search query box.

The second way is directly type the website address: This software is commonly used to understand other foreign languages or translate phrases or sentences from English into another language or vice-versa.

The next step is how to translate the languages that are in different files. It does not matter if you want to translate or file or just a passage from the original text, there is only one easy way to translate text using Google Translate. All you will need to do is copy and paste the whole text passage into the Google translate text box and select the original language on the drop down menu and the select your desired language you want the text to be translated into.

You may also translate a foreign webpage using Google translate. All you will need to do is type in the complete website address of the webpage into the text box. Then, you will need to configure language settings, and click the translate button.

Google translate is pretty much a self explanatory program. All you will need to do is just basically read the instructions on the website. Once you know all the steps, then you are all set to translate foreign text all the time. It really is that simple.

Many Internet marketers are using Google Translate as they branch out into other cultures and languages. When paired up with the Google Keyword Tool, the two make a awesome pair of free marketing tools.

Delores Robinson is an experiences web user that love surfing foreign websites. So she was excited when Google introduced Google Translate. Now she can surf the web in different languages and understand what they are saying. She also loves using the Google Keyword Tool along with Google Earth.

Teleconferencing Technology

Teleconferencing technologyTeleconferencing technology has provided businesses with an entirely new way of communicating over long distances. In fact, it helps business save money on travel expenses and has also helped business owners increase the productivity of their business by providing them with the ability to communicate via telecommunication methods. Finally, as more businesses catch onto the teleconferencing technology wave, people will see more and more businesses reaping the.

Teleconferencing technology gives businesses the ability to have meetings over long distances, conduct business briefings, employee training sessions, workshops, seminars, lectures and more between individuals who might not otherwise be able to easily get together. So what exactly is teleconferencing technology and how does it work?

First, there are different forms of teleconferencing technology. For one thing, teleconferencing is not only available to businesses; it is also available to individuals in their homes. The most simplistic version of teleconferencing technology can be identified in the use of three-way calling, a simple technology that allows several individuals to talk at one time while they are all located in different locations. Many people make use of this on a daily basis, to communicate with friends and family and thoroughly enjoy the ability to all talk together.

As well, businesses and corporations make effective use of such technology. Every day, businesses conduct conference calls that make information exchange between offices, employees, or from one business location to another far simpler than in the past when they relied on special mailing and meetings to share such information.

Thus, serving both the individual and businesses, teleconferencing technology appears to have a promising future indeed.

Teleconferencing can also be conducted online, along with other types of online conferencing services. Alternative, yet similar, to teleconferencing are the web conferencing techniques that are also available. With the Internet, companies can use both live web feed and audio to conduct meetings and make business plans. Further, with various web conferencing features, businesses can benefit from the use of special software applications like that in Excel, Access, PowerPoint, and can transmit various images from one place to another within a matter of moments. Conversely, a simplistic method of web conferencing includes using instant messaging systems and privately designed chat rooms in which businesses can conduct discussions, meetings, planning of projects and more.

In the end, the benefits of teleconferencing and web conferencing are tremendous. Businesses and individuals can communicate with relatively little expense and just a little bit of planning. Plus, travelling is not required to keep employees or other individuals up-to-date and informed about important events. Likewise, for the individual, both teleconferencing and web communications offer a unique way for people to keep in touch with one another. Thus, in saving of precious time, equally precious money, and in the ease with which communication is established and maintained, teleconferencing and web conferencing provide unique benefits to all individuals that choose to embrace and utilize the technologies afforded to them.

Michael Russell

Google Earth – Your Personal Business Tool

Google Earth
Google Earth

Perhaps you have already seen high-resolution and satellite imagery as well as photos online. Ever wondered how it was captured? This is the amazing feature of Google’s another innovation – the Google Earth. It is another program of Google Inc. that has the purpose of providing geographical information about the Earth.

It basically displays satellite images of the Earth’s surface. Imagine the possibilities it can give you. You can take a look at places without even going there; you can get directions of how to get there and many more. Actually, these images have been used in many ingenious ways while changing our perception about the world around us.

Since Google Earth showcases 3d aerial photo shots of any places on earth, you can search for the location of your home, school or office. It’s like you are touring around the world in a virtual kind of way. Isn’t that amazing?

Furthermore, it has an interactive feature, a community showcase that allows anyone around the globe to contribute information for Google Earth’s development. With this, it now has become possible for even the uninhabited terrains of Grand Canyon to be viewed in 3d version. It is because of its zoom slider function that allows a terrain tilt in the view mode.

Google’s new tool comes in different versions. It has a downloadable version free of charge and is perfect for personal use. Its latest versions have more advanced features. The Google Earth plus, for example, has features that involves the use of a GPS device.

GPS Data importation is recognized as points which are categorized either as Tracks, Waypoints or Routes. Track points are paths imported through this application. These points are automatically recorded every so often. Waypoints are generally marked with a name like “home”. The Routes gives directions as to where to go.

Another remarkable version is the Google Earth Fusion. It integrates geospatial data into the Enterprise system via Google Earth server. It supports the generation of Google images and 3d version models. Moreover, it has unique graphical interface that is convenient to use. This newest version displays street level images seemingly similar to Google maps. It gives you a 360 degree panoramic view of city streets in countries like Australia, France, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, United States and other big countries in the world.

Today, Google Earth has been very beneficial in any business industry. It serves as a channel for clients and business companies to meet. It provides street views of business location and directions when the clients try to search them. In the future, expect to see even more ingenious uses of Google Earth.

Useful Tips in Making a Website

It can be a scary task for the people who are new to the world of website designing to build their own website. With the certain keys and steps to be followed, you can simply make it into a simpler process. Before jumping in with it, it is very much important to do proper research. This is a one way of saving your time and money.

One of the essential things for you to remember in getting your own site online is the following: website building tool, domain name and the web host. You can actually make a unique website from a simple text editor but on the other hand, you need to know and understand HTML or the Hyper Text Markup Language.

In addition, there is some of the website building tools that are designed especially to the people without knowledge on HTML. This is through the so-called “what you see is what you get editors”. You create the pages you want and this editor will automatically convert what you are doing into HTML. To find a domain is an easier process. You need to find first a domain that is free and register it with a domain name. You don’t need to worry about this, for there are many companies who can help you to do it quickly and straightforward. Finding domain name ends with .com, .org or .net. And the web hosts are the companies that you are paying for to host your website. This is for the reason that every site must be stored in a one powerful server or a powerful computer and this is the way wherein your visitors can get over your spot for they can be directed into your site because of the server.

In addition, these are some of the significant things that you need to know more in trying to make your website a compelling site.

* Make sure that your website will load fast.
* It should have a layout that is clear and pleasant to the eyes
* Always use colors that the visitors will be interested in.
* Make sure to have a FAQs page for your site.
* Provide information to the visitors that are relevant and easy to understand.
* Keep you site on the basics: it should be open and light
* write the contents that are original, bold and short
* Establish trust with the visitors coming in and out
* Keep in mind the way your visitor will feel, try to envision them by giving a thought as what they are looking into.

Website development is something that you should not just take for granted especially if you are starting your own business. If you want to learn more about website development and want more tips, check out

An Introduction to Computer Forensics

When you hear of computer forensics, the first thing that pops to mind might be a Crime Scene Investigator, pulling the plastic sheet off of a computer and inspecting for signs of a struggle. Nobody really ever talked about forensics in daily life until they started making those scientifically accurate prime time cop shows, so of course, simple word association generally leads us to forensic sciences being “Something cops do, right?”

Incidentally, the science behind computer forensics really isn’t much different from the science between crime scene forensics. In both instances, the forensics team or expert is looking for a trail of evidence. In either case, the investigator looks at what has happened, determines how it happened, and from that, deducts who might be responsible.

The major difference between the two is that, while an investigator on the scene of a robbery or a violent crime is looking for physical evidence, the computer forensics investigator is looking for digital evidence.

Interestingly, where physical evidence can often be misleading, confusing, ambiguous, and difficult to put together without the help of witness statements, digital evidence tends to present itself in a much more direct manner.

A computer keeps logs of pretty much everything that has been done with it. For example, besides your browser history, there’s also your temporary internet folder, where information from the web is stored on your computer. So, say an employee is watching YouTube all day when they’re supposed to be working. Even if they’re smart enough to clear the browser history, the temporary internet files may still hold the evidence that will earn them a warning.

That’s only a very simple example, of course. Computer forensics addresses everything from computer crime to employee misconduct, to such mundane tasks as figuring out why your virus scanner isn’t working.

The point is that everything you do on a computer leaves a mark. Deleting a file from your hard drive is not same thing as deleting all the evidence that it was ever there. Just as every room in your house holds some DNA evidence, be it a hair, saliva, or a toenail clipping, no matter how well you vacuum and shampoo your carpets, there will be some evidence that this is your home. The same goes with computers. You can’t do anything on a computer without a computer expert being able to figure out exactly what you’ve been up to.

One issue that many find confusing with regards to computer forensics … how legal is it, really?

This depends on the context. Here’s all you need to know if you’re considering hiring a computer forensics team, but aren’t sure if you can:

If you suspect an employee of breaking company policy or even breaking the law with a computer that belongs to the company, you do have the right to take a look at the computer they’ve been working any time you like.

It gets a little trickier when an employee is working on their own computer. This isn’t a dead end, but it may be a little trickier. Luckily, you don’t always have to look at their computer to find evidence of what they’ve done on their computer. In any case, go ahead and call your forensics people, and they should be able to advise you on how far you can go to gather the evidence you need in order to take action.

Really, computer forensics is simply the art of finding a trail of evidence on computers, simple as that. You never know when you’ll need such services, so it’s a good idea to keep them in mind in case you ever do.

Pure Hacking helps protect your Internet security by providing world-class penetration testing and ethical hacking risk management services. For a free consultation, please visit Ethical Hacking.

Data Forensics

Data forensics is one of the sub branches of computer forensics. It is essential to establish legal evidences as found in computers and its storage media. Its primary goal is to give a clear explanation of a digital artifact’s state. Digital artifacts include storage devices, computer systems or electronic documents.

Data forensics are employed for a couple of reasons. It is a significant portion of data recovery for either hardware or software failures. It also helps analyze how an attacker was able to break-in to a system. It is also important to gather information about an employee that a certain organization wants to terminate. Alongside all these reasons, different steps are followed in the database forensics process.

There are several steps involved in the entire forensics process. These are as follows:

• Preparation of the investigator. An investigator must have an ample background of the subject matter. He should be trained enough to know the facets of the process. He validates all data needed by the courts basing on generated reports. Since there are many tools to choose from, the investigator should determine the appropriate tool to be applied for the case.

• Collection of data. The data are gathered in the form of digital evidences. Data forensics make use of tools such as computers, hard drives, CD-ROMs and even cellular phones or digital cameras. The data should be carefully handled to assure that no changes are made. Documentation and the use of reliable tools will help secure the collected data for forensics use.

• Examination. There are two ways by which data are examined. Traditionally, the dead data analysis is employed. This is one method where investigations are performed on hard drives or any data at rest. Currently, the live data analysis is also used. This is helpful when the attacker does not make use of the computer’s hard drive. This is also important if the person makes use of cryptographic storage devices where data intervention may no longer be seen once the computer shuts-off.

Once the data are gathered and examined, the data forensics investigator may report the incident to management or to whoever needs the data. Following these steps require careful scrutiny of the scenario. This will ensure that all legal actions will be imposed on the attacker. In like manner, it will help dictate the punishment to be given to the offender.

Property of RecoverMyPc Inc.
Ara Pekel invites you to visit
RecoverMyPc will give you the Secure Data Recovery that you need. Use our free Online Picture Recovery Tool, Free Software, Software Coupons, and Great Articles to read.

DES and 3DES

Data Encryption Standard (DES) data are encrypted in 64-bit blocks using a 56-bit key. The DES algorithm takes the input through a series of transformations: initial permutation; a complex function, which involves both permutation and substitution operations and depends on a key input; a simple permutation function that switches the two halves of the data; the function is applied again; and a permutation function that is the inverse of the initial permutation takes place. There are five “modes of operation” that have been defined in order to apply DES to a variety of applications. They are Electronic Codebook, Cipher Block Chaining, Cipher Feedback, Output Feedback Counter, and Counter (Cryptography Concepts, 2005).

Triple DES or 3DES involves repeating the DES algorithm three times on the plaintext, using two or three different keys to produce the ciphertext. As stated in the article DES is dead. Long live…Well, um, What, “First it encrypts, then it decrypts and finally it encrypts again” (Moskowitz, 1999). Three DES is now used because it is very resistant to cryptanalysis, serving as an alternative to add security against the potential vulnerability of DES to brute-force attack. Triple DES has been adopted for use in the key management standards ANSI X 9.17 and ISO 8732, along with a number of Internet-based applications, such as PGP and S/MIME (AES, Ciphers, and Confidentiality, 2005). The picture below shows the triple encryption process, as well as show the middle portion of 3DES as a decryption rather than an encryption making it more secure.

A nonce and key distribution center (KDC) shares a secret key or “master” key between each party on a network. The KDC is responsible for generating nonce and keys to be used for a short time over a connection between two parties, known as session keys, and for distributing those keys using the master keys to protect the distribution. The following steps occur:

1. A issues request to the KDC for a session key with B. The message includes the identity of A and B, as well as a unique identifier for the transaction, a nonce, which may include a random number or a counter.

2. The KDC replies with a message encrypted using Ka. Thus, only A can read the message and knows the message originated at the KDC. The message includes:

• The one-time session key, Ks, to be used for the session.
• The original request message, including the nonce, to enable A to match this response with the appropriate request.

In addition, the message includes two items intended for B:

• The one-time session key, Ks.
• An identifier of A, IDA.

These are encrypted with the master key that the KDC shares with B. They are sent to B to establish connection and prove A’s identity.

3. A stores the session key for use in the upcoming session and forwards to B the information that originated at the KDC for B. This information is protected from eavesdropping, because it is encrypted by the master key, Kb. B knows the session key, A’s identity, and that the information originated at the KDC.

4. B then sends a nonce, N2, to A, using a newly minted session key for encryption.

5. Using the session key, A responds with f(N2), where f is a function that performs some transformation on N2 (e.g., adding one) (Stallings, 2003 pgs 214-15).

In conclusion, the above explained how DES works, why 3DES is now used, why the middle portion of 3DES is a decryption rather than an encryption, and explain a nonce and a key distribution center.

Works Cited

Moskowitz, Robert. (1999). DES is dead. Long Live… well, um, what? Network Computing, vol. 10 issue 6. Retrieved October 22, 2005, from, EBSCO Host Research Databas

Stallings, William. (2003). Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Joshua Maluchnik, M.I.T., MCP/MCTS
Account Executive
Tranztec Solutions, Inc.

Satellite Radio – How Does it Work?

A satellite radio, also known as a subscription radio, is a satellite communicated digital radio signal, enveloping a larger geographical scope than normal radio signals.

Satellite radio provides a valid option to terrestrial radio in certain countries, particularly the United States. Mobile services, including Sirius, XM, and Worldspace, provide the functionality for listeners to rove an entire country allowing them to tune in to the same audio programming wherever they travel.

Satellite Radio services are typically payment based and provided by business based organizations. The different services are proprietary signals, needing specific hardware for decoding and playback. Providers typically supply a selection of news, weather, sports, and music, with the music channels commonly free from advertising. In regions with a comparatively elevated populace, it is simpler and cost effective to contact the mass of the population with normal broadcasts. Consequently in the UK and several countries, the current development of radio services is focused on Digital Audio Broadcasting services or HD Radio, as opposed to satellite radio.

Currently, Sirius and XM both offer in excess of 100 channels of uninterrupted, unambiguous music without commercial intermission. Satellite radio is comparable to the dedicated radio channels offered on digital cable and satellite TV.

Lately, the regard of AM radio stations has diminished in support of the clarified FM stations. As the clarity of satellite radio is superior than that created on the FM range, it’s reasonable to speculate whether normal radio will before long become outdated.

Programmers assemble playlists for specialist channels, loading them with suitable music. Yet this opening action in the broadcast procedure diverges from normal radio, where a DJ chooses and plays tracks.

The playlists are uploaded to computers, which then assign them to orbiting satellites. The music is then communicated to listeners on terra firma. Since obstacles such as large buildings and natural structures can deteriorate the signal, satellite radio providers activate a quantity of global repeaters, which improve the airwaves and strengthen the signal.

Local repeaters comparable to boosters permit signal accessibility even though the sight of the satellite is jammed, for instance, by buildings in a city. Main tunnels can too have repeaters. This process furthermore allows local programming to be transmitted such as traffic and weather in most key urban areas.

Similar to the cable-available radio, satellite broadcasts are characterized into music type. Satellite radio also presents channels devoted to comedy, sports, news, chat, and leisure. There are in addition weather and traffic channels accessible for chief U.S. cities.

In conjunction with the clarity of sound and the nonexistence of adverts, satellite radio is unrestricted. The FCC doesn’t compel convention on the content broadcast through this medium, consequently, as with cable TV, each topic is open for debate without prohibition.

Two Way Radio Communications Satellite Radios, Codan, Barrett.